What is Pleading in CPC?

Photo of author

By Legal Referencer

As the cornerstone of litigation strategy, a nuanced understanding of this art form becomes the compass guiding lawyers through the labyrinth of legal advocacy. In this article, join us in an exploration of pleading in CPC—a craft where words wield immense power, shaping the very essence of legal arguments.

Table of Contents

A) Introduction– Pleading in CPC

Order 6, Rule 17 of the Civil Procedure Code: An Insight into Amendment of Pleadings

Order 6, Rule 17 of the Civil Procedure Code (CPC) is a legal provision that allows parties involved in a civil suit to amend their pleadings. Pleadings are the formal, written statements filed by the parties in a case, outlining their respective claims and defenses. The purpose of this arrangement is to ensure that justice is  effectively administered by providing flexibility in the presentation of cases. 

Amendment under this rule is a discretionary power granted to the courts. This allows parties to correct any errors, omissions, or deficiencies in their original pleadings, thereby ensuring a fair trial without unduly limiting the scope of the case. The underlying principle is that technical aspects should not overshadow the pursuit of justice. 

The rule empowers the court to allow amendments at any stage of the proceedings. Whether before or after the commencement of the trial, the court has the authority to permit alterations in the pleadings. This flexibility recognizes that litigation is dynamic and that parties may discover new facts or legal arguments to incorporate into their initial motion as the case progresses. 

The key consideration for the court in granting such amendments is to ensure that they do not prejudice the other party unduly. The court will evaluate factors such as delay, malafide, and the impact on the other party’s defense. It is worth noting that the court can also impose conditions when approving an amendment.   If the amendment is likely to cause injustice or delay the proceedings significantly, the court may exercise its discretion to deny the request.

It is worth noting that the court can also impose conditions when approving an amendment.  These conditions could include costs or a time frame within which the amended pleading must be filed. This ensures a balance between the interests of the party seeking variation and the overall efficiency of the legal process. 

In essence, Order 6, Rule 17 embodies the principle that the pursuit of justice should not be hindered by rigid procedural formalities.The organization recognizes the ever-evolving nature of litigation and aims to provide parties with a fair and equal platform  to effectively present their cases.

Pleading in CPC

B) Amendment of Pleadings: Unveiling Order 6 Rule 17 CPC

Merits-Based Decisions:

Courts base their decisions on the merits of a case, relying on facts, proofs, and evidence. In cases where the merits are inadequately presented in pleadings, the court’s decision may fall short of delivering complete justice, potentially overlooking crucial aspects.

Purpose and Concept of Amending Pleadings:

Recognizing the pivotal role of complete merit disclosure, courts possess the authority to permit the amendment of pleadings. This concept addresses instances where important merits were omitted or undiscovered during the initial pleading stage.

Granting Permission through Order VI Rule 17 CPC:

Order VI Rule 17 of the CPC empowers parties to seek amendments to their pleadings at any stage of the legal proceedings. This provision reflects the acknowledgment that the evolution of a case may necessitate adjustments to ensure a comprehensive presentation of merits.

Proviso and Limitations on Amendment After Trial Commencement:

The rule includes a proviso restricting amendments once the trial has commenced. However, exceptions exist if, despite due diligence, a party couldn’t raise the matter earlier. This highlights the court’s flexibility in acknowledging unforeseen circumstances or information.

Illustrative Example:

To illustrate, consider a scenario where a person, “A,” hastily files a lawsuit against “B” due to limitations. Subsequently, A realizes the omission of crucial facts, proofs, or documents in the initial pleading, unknown to him at the time. The court, at its discretion, may grant A permission to amend the pleading, ensuring a more thorough presentation of merits.

Discretionary Power of the Court:

The decision to permit amendments rests on the discretionary power of the court. It considers factors such as the diligence exhibited by the party, the nature of the omitted information, and the stage of the proceedings.
Exemption from Limitation Laws:

Crucially, applications to amend pleadings are exempt from limitation laws. This means that parties can seek amendments at any stage without being constrained by limitations, ensuring flexibility in adapting to the evolving dynamics of the case.

Ensuring a Comprehensive Presentation:

The underlying objective is to ensure that the court receives a comprehensive presentation of the merits, promoting fairness and completeness in the adjudication process.

C) Objectives of Pleadings

Objectives of Pleading: Unveiling the Purpose Behind Legal Allegations 

Communication of Claims and Defenses:

Pleadings serve as a means for parties in a legal dispute to communicate their claims and defenses formally. This ensures clarity and transparency regarding disputed issues. 

Informing the Opposing Party:

One of the primary objectives is to inform the opposing party about the specific nature of the case. The pleadings provide a clear outline of the factual and legal basis relied upon by each party. 

Pleadings contribute to the fair administration of justice by setting the parameters for the trial. These help the court understand the scope of the dispute, allowing for a more efficient and fair resolution.  

Defining Legal Issues:

Pleadings help define the legal issues that need adjudication. By presenting  facts and legal ideas in a systematic manner, parties assist courts in determining specific legal issues.  .

Avoiding Surprise:

A key objective is to prevent surprise or ambush during the trial. Parties are required to disclose relevant facts and legal theories during pleadings, thereby reducing the potential for strategic surprises in the proceeding.

Narrowing the Controversy:

Pleadings play an important role in suppressing disputes between the parties. These describe the specific subject matter of the dispute, allowing for more targeted and efficient solutions to legal problems. 

Ensuring Adherence to Legal Requirements:

Pleadings must conform to legal requirements and rules. This objective ensures that the parties comply with the procedural standards set by the jurisdiction, thereby promoting consistency and fairness.

Enabling Amendments:

While the initial pleading sets the foundation, another objective is to allow for amendments. This allows parties to refine and adapt their claims and defenses to reflect new information and legal findings as the case progresses.

Promoting Settlement Discussions:

Pleadings can serve as a basis for settlement discussions. Clear formulation of claims and objections allows parties to reconsider their positions and seek negotiated solutions.

Aiding judicial Decision-Making:

Pleadings assist the court in making informed decisions. These provide judges with a structured framework for assessing the merits of a case and applying relevant legal principles.

Pleading in CPC


D) Basic or Fundamental Rules of Pleading under Civil Procedure Code (CPC): A Comprehensive Overview

Clear and Concise Statements:

Pleadings must contain clear and concise statements of material facts. The objective is to present the case in a straightforward manner, avoiding unnecessary details while ensuring all essential facts are covered.

Particulars of Claim or Defense:

Pleadings should include particulars of the claim or defense, providing specific details to enable the opposite party to understand the case they have to meet. Vague or general statements are discouraged.

Division into Paragraphs:

The content of pleadings should be divided into paragraphs, each dealing with a distinct issue or fact. This enhances readability and facilitates focused consideration of individual elements.

Orderly Sequence:

Pleadings must follow an orderly sequence, presenting facts in a logical and coherent manner. This ensures that the court and the opposing party can comprehend the narrative of the case without confusion.

Material Facts Only:

Pleadings should include only material facts, meaning those facts that are directly relevant to the cause of action or defense. Unnecessary details or surplusage should be avoided.

Legal Conclusions:

Pleadings should focus on facts rather than legal conclusions. While legal contentions are allowed, the emphasis should be on presenting the facts supporting those contentions. 

Specific Denial of Opponent’s Case:

A fundamental rule is to respond specifically to the opponent’s case. If a party intends to deny a fact, it should be done specifically, and a general denial without addressing specific allegations is discouraged.

No Evasive Answers:

Evasive answers are not permitted. Parties are required to respond directly to the allegations made against them, promoting transparency and avoiding ambiguity.

Complete Defense:

The defense pleaded should be complete, covering all relevant aspects of the case. Any failure to do so may result in the court drawing adverse inferences.

Specific Performance in Suits for Breach of Contract:

In suits for breach of contract, the specific performance of the contract must be claimed expressly. General statements about damages may not be sufficient.

Consistent Pleading:

Pleadings should be consistent throughout the case. Any contradiction within the pleadings may raise questions about the credibility of the party.

Relief Sought Clearly Mentioned:

The relief sought by the plaintiff should be clearly mentioned in the pleading. This ensures that the court understands the specific remedy sought.


Parties are allowed to amend their pleadings, subject to certain conditions. Amendments should be made promptly and not cause prejudice to the other party.

Separation of Material Facts and Evidence:

The principle emphasizes that pleadings should distinctly delineate between material facts (facts probanda) and evidence (facts probantia). Material facts, which form the crux of the case, are to be explicitly stated, while evidence to prove those facts should not be included.

Definition of Facts Probanda:

Facts probanda refers to the material facts that need to be proved to substantiate a party’s claim or defense. These are the core elements on which the legal arguments hinge.

Definition of Facts Probantia:

Facts probantia encompass the evidence by which a case is to be proved. This includes documents, testimonies, or any other evidentiary support required to establish the material facts.

Inclusion of Facts Probanda in Pleadings:

The central tenet is that only facts probanda should be incorporated into pleadings. These are the crucial building blocks of the case and provide a clear foundation for the legal arguments.

Purpose of Pleadings:

Pleadings primarily serve the purpose of notifying the opposing party and the court about the material facts upon which a party relies. This allows for transparency and ensures that the case’s foundation is clearly presented.

Material Facts in the Plaintiff’s Claim:

In the plaintiff’s claim, material facts on which the plaintiff relies for seeking relief constitute facts probanda. These must be explicitly stated in the plaint to provide a basis for the legal cause of action.

Material Facts in the Defendant’s Defense:

In the defendant’s defense, material facts forming the basis for rebutting the plaintiff’s claims are the facts probanda for the defendant. These must be stated in the written statement to present a coherent defense.

Exclusion of Evidence from Pleadings:

The overarching principle is the exclusion of evidence from pleadings. While the facts probanda must be detailed, presenting the evidence or how those facts will be proved is a matter for subsequent stages of the legal proceedings.

Maintaining Distinctness and Clarity:

The rationale behind this distinction is to maintain clarity and prevent confusion. Pleadings should be focused on the foundational facts without delving into the intricacies of the evidence that will be presented later in the trial.

Particulars of Time, Place, and Amount:

In certain cases, where time, place, or amount is material, particulars of these aspects should be provided in the pleadings.

Signing and Verification:

Pleadings must be signed and verified by the party or their authorized representative. This is a mandatory requirement to affirm the truthfulness of the statements made.

Pleading in CPC


Amendment of Pleadings: Unveiling Order 6 Rule 17 CPC

Introduction to Merits-Based Decisions:

Courts base their decisions on the merits of a case, relying on facts, proofs, and evidence. In cases where the merits are inadequately presented in pleadings, the court’s decision may fall short of delivering complete justice, potentially overlooking crucial aspects.

Purpose and Concept of Amending Pleadings:

Recognizing the pivotal role of complete merit disclosure, courts possess the authority to permit the amendment of pleadings. This concept addresses instances where important merits were omitted or undiscovered during the initial pleading stage.

Granting Permission through Order VI Rule 17 CPC:

Order VI Rule 17 of the CPC empowers parties to seek amendments to their pleadings at any stage of the legal proceedings. This provision reflects the acknowledgment that the evolution of a case may necessitate adjustments to ensure a comprehensive presentation of merits.

Proviso and Limitations on Amendment After Trial Commencement:

The rule includes a proviso restricting amendments once the trial has commenced. However, exceptions exist if, despite due diligence, a party couldn’t raise the matter earlier. This highlights the court’s flexibility in acknowledging unforeseen circumstances or information.

Illustrative Example:

To illustrate, consider a scenario where a person, “A,” hastily files a lawsuit against “B” due to limitations. Subsequently, A realizes the omission of crucial facts, proofs, or documents in the initial pleading, unknown to him at the time. The court, at its discretion, may grant A permission to amend the pleading, ensuring a more thorough presentation of merits.

Discretionary Power of the Court:

The decision to permit amendments rests on the discretionary power of the court. It considers factors such as the diligence exhibited by the party, the nature of the omitted information, and the stage of the proceedings.

Exemption from Limitation Laws:

Crucially, applications to amend pleadings are exempt from limitation laws. This means that parties can seek amendments at any stage without being constrained by limitations, ensuring flexibility in adapting to the evolving dynamics of the case.

Ensuring a Comprehensive Presentation:

The underlying objective is to ensure that the court receives a comprehensive presentation of the merits, promoting fairness and completeness in the adjudication process.

In the 2012 case of Rameshkumar Agarwal v. Rajmala Exports Pvt. Ltd., the Supreme Court elucidated the purpose behind amending pleadings. The court emphasized that amendment should not be rejected if they are necessary and made in good faith. It emphasized the purpose of the clause to provide fair variation to both parties and that the main consideration should be to prevent unnecessary multiple disputes. This decision underscores the Court’s commitment to promoting fairness, recognizing the evolving nature of litigation and highlighting the need for flexibility in pleadings to ensure a more complete and fair resolution of cases. did.


Valid Reasons to Amend Pleadings: Unveiling the Key Instances

Determining the Real Controversy:

The proposed amendment is essential for ascertaining the genuine controversy in the suit. Amendments are valid when they contribute to a clearer, more accurate presentation of the issues at hand, ensuring that the court can adjudicate based on a precise understanding of the real dispute.

Shortening Litigation Duration:

The proposed amendment aims to expedite the resolution of the dispute between the parties. Courts favor amendments that streamline the litigation process, promoting efficiency and reducing the time spent on unnecessary legal proceedings.

Incomplete Cause of Action:

An incomplete cause of action is initially pleaded in the suit. If the original pleading lacks essential elements required for a complete cause of action, amendments become necessary to rectify these omissions and ensure the legal claim is comprehensive.

Omission of Necessary Facts:

Some crucial facts were not initially included when the suit was filed. Valid amendments include the addition of facts that were unintentionally omitted during the initial pleading, ensuring that all relevant information is presented for a fair adjudication.

Correction of Incorrect Facts:

Incorrect facts, such as inaccuracies in property descriptions, are mentioned in the pleading. Amendments are permissible when there are errors in the factual details initially provided. Correcting such inaccuracies ensures that the court’s understanding aligns with the actual circumstances.

Pleading in CPC

G) Who Can Apply for Amendment to Pleadings- A Pointwise Overview

Applicability to Both Parties:

Amendments to pleadings are not restricted to a specific party; both the plaintiff and the defendant have the right to apply for amendments. This inclusivity ensures fairness in the legal process, allowing either party to rectify, enhance, or clarify their respective positions.

Amendment in the Plaintiff’s Pleading:

The plaintiff has the authority to seek amendments in the plaint, which is the initial document outlining the claims and demands in a legal action. This provision empowers the plaintiff to refine or expand upon their original claims, adapting to the evolving dynamics of the case.

Amendment in the Defendant’s Written Statement:

Similarly, the defendant can apply for amendments in the written statement, which is the response outlining the defenses and counterclaims. The defendant’s right to seek amendments ensures a balanced legal process, allowing adjustments to their defenses based on emerging facts or legal considerations.

Multiple Plaintiffs or Defendants:

In cases where there are multiple plaintiffs or defendants involved in a suit, the application for amendments can be made by one of the plaintiffs or defendants. This flexibility acknowledges the collaborative or independent nature of legal claims involving multiple parties, allowing any of them to initiate the amendment process.


H) Notice for Amendment Application: Ensuring Procedural Fairness

Principle of Procedural Fairness:

Granting an amendment without hearing from the other party would be procedurally incorrect.
Fundamental to the legal process is the principle of procedural fairness, ensuring that both parties have an opportunity to present their case and respond to proposed changes.

Requirement for Notice:

When an amendment is sought in a pleading, especially in the plaint, notice of the amendment is necessary.
Providing notice is a procedural safeguard, informing the opposing party of the proposed changes and affording them an opportunity to respond or challenge the amendment.

Amendment to the Plaint:

Specifically, when an amendment is made to the plaint (the document initiating legal action), a notice of the amended plaint is mandatory. This notice serves as a formal notice to the defendant, informing the defendant of any changes made to the plaintiff’s claim and allowing the defendant to prepare a response.

Serving Notice to the Defendant:

The notice of the amended plaint must be served directly to the defendant.
Direct service ensures that the defendant receives timely and accurate information about the amendments, maintaining transparency and adherence to procedural fairness.

Opportunity for Response:

Serving notice provides the defendant with an opportunity to respond or raise objections to the proposed amendments. This step protects the rights of defendants and ensures that they can express their views on the proposed changes before the court makes a decision.

Preserving Fair Adjudication:

The notice requirement is integral to preserving fair adjudication. By giving the defendant notice, the legal system upholds the principles of fairness, allowing both parties to participate actively in the proceedings and preventing unilateral changes that could compromise the integrity of the case.

I) Order 6 Rule 17 CPC: Non-Exhaustive Nature and Inherent Court Power

Non-Exhaustive Provisions:

Provisions under Order VI Rule 17 are not exhaustive. The rule does not encompass all possible grounds for amendments. It implies that there may be circumstances beyond the specified conditions where an amendment is justified.

Limitation of Rule 17:

Rule 17 does not cover all potential reasons for amendments.
While Rule 17 outlines specific scenarios for amendments, it does not provide an exhaustive list, recognizing that unforeseen or unique circumstances may warrant amendments not explicitly mentioned.

Existence of Other Grounds:

Other grounds for amendments may exist outside the scope of Rule 17. The non-exhaustive nature implies that the court may consider alternative justifications for amendments, acknowledging the complexity of legal cases and the need for flexibility.

Inherent Power of the Court:

The power of amendment is inherent in the court. Courts possess an inherent authority to ensure justice, allowing them to consider and grant amendments even when specific provisions like Rule 17 may not explicitly apply.

Resorting to Section 151 of the Code:

Section 151 of the Code can be invoked when Rule 17 is not applicable. Section 151 provides the court with inherent powers to do justice. When a situation arises that is not covered by Rule 17, parties can resort to Section 151 to seek necessary amendments, recognizing the court’s broader authority.

Flexibility in Amendment Grounds:

The inherent power allows for flexibility in considering grounds for amendments.
Courts can exercise inherent powers to address unique circumstances, ensuring that justice is not impeded by strict adherence to predefined rules.

Ensuring Comprehensive Justice:

The non-exhaustive nature and inherent power safeguard comprehensive justice. Recognizing that legal cases can be intricate, the provisions maintain flexibility, ensuring that courts can address unforeseen circumstances and grant amendments in the interest of fairness.

J) Time Limit, Discretion and Judicial Considerations

Time Limit for Amendment:

After being granted leave for amendment, a specified time period is given. Parties are expected to make amendments within the stipulated time frame, usually 14 days from the date of the order. Failing this, an extension must be sought from the court.

Presumption of 14-Day Limit:

If the time limit is not specified, it is presumed to be 14 days from the order date. The presumption ensures clarity, indicating that parties generally have a limited window for making necessary amendments unless a different period is explicitly mentioned.

Restriction on Amendment After Specified Time:

Failure to amend within the specified time doesn’t result in the dismissal of the suit. The court has the discretion to extend the time for amendment, recognizing that parties may face challenges adhering to strict timelines, especially considering factors like ignorance or inexperience.

Court’s Discretion to Extend Time:

The court can extend the time for amendment at its discretion. Judicial flexibility allows the court to consider individual circumstances and grant an extension even if the specified period has lapsed, preventing undue dismissal of suits due to procedural lapses.

Importance of Judicial Discretion:

In appropriate cases, the court may permit amendment despite delay in payment of further costs. Recognizing the practical realities, the court has the authority to consider factors such as the parties’ ignorance, illiteracy, or counsel’s inexperience, ensuring fairness and justice.

Judicial Precedent: Pahali Raut v. Khulana Bewa (1985):

In the Pahali Raut case, the Orissa High Court emphasized the parties’ often limited legal knowledge and the role of inexperienced counsel. The court acknowledged the practical challenges faced by litigants and their representatives, advocating for a compassionate and understanding approach in granting extensions.

Judicial Precedent: B.K.N. Narayana Pillai v. P. Pillai and Ors. (2000):

The Supreme Court, in the B.K.N. Narayana Pillai case, held that mere delay in filing the application should not be a valid ground for rejection. The court emphasized that if the delay can be compensated by costs and is not detrimental to the other party, the application for amendment should not be summarily rejected. The overarching goal is to promote the ends of justice.

Courts’ Role in Providing Full Justice:

The power of courts to allow amendments is aimed at providing complete justice to the parties. Courts are urged to use their authority in favor of justice, understanding that the purpose of allowing amendments is to rectify issues and not to defeat parties based on correctable procedural lapses.

Pleading in CPC

K) Understanding the Structure of a Plaint

1) Title

In the intricate dance of legal documentation, the heading and title hold a distinguished role, akin to the opening act that sets the stage for the entire legal performance. As per the guidelines stipulated in Order VII, Rule 1(a), the heading of the plaint takes center stage, boldly proclaiming the court where the legal saga unfolds. This not only demarcates the jurisdiction but also lays the foundational context for the legal narrative about to unfold.

Following this, the suit number steps into the limelight, assuming the role of a unique identifier. This numeric badge acts as a backstage pass, granting access to the intricacies of a court case and providing an organized means of searching when the bar takes center stage. 

Soon after, the protagonists make their entrance—the names of the parties intricately woven into the script, each detailed with essential particulars. In instances where the cast extends beyond a singular plaintiff or defendant, a meticulous numbering system takes the forefront. This ensures a harmonious choreography, with each party donning their designated role as Plaintiff No. 1, Defendant No. 1, and so forth, preventing any missteps in the legal ballet.

As the curtain rises, the title of the suit unfurls, a succinct yet potent declaration of the legal storyline about to unfold. This title provides a quick overview of the upcoming legal drama and serves as a compass for legal practitioners navigating the complex script.

2) Main Body of the Plaint

Substantive Portion:

This section focuses on articulating all the crucial facts that constitute the cause of action. It delves into the specifics of the defendant’s interest and liability, providing a comprehensive foundation for the legal narrative.

Formal Portion:

Date of Cause of Action: Clearly specifies the date when the cause of action arose, a fundamental detail to establish the temporal framework of the legal dispute.

Jurisdiction Facts: Articulates facts related to jurisdiction, crucial for determining the appropriate legal forum for the case.

Valuation Statement: Clearly states the valuation of the suit, essential for both jurisdictional considerations and determining court fees. It explicitly mentions the affixing of the necessary court fee to the plaint.

Representation Details: Addresses the minority, insanity, or representative character of a party, ensuring transparency in legal proceedings.

Limitation Grounds: When filed beyond the limitation period, provides a detailed statement outlining the grounds for seeking exemption or condonation of the delay as per Limitation Law.

Relief Sought: Clearly and precisely articulates every relief sought by the plaintiff, avoiding ambiguity and allowing the court to understand the nature of the claims.

Signature and Verification:

Plaintiff’s Signature: Mandates the plaintiff’s signature through an advocate. In cases where the plaintiff is unable to sign, authorization by a duly appointed representative is accepted.

Verification: The plaintiff personally verifies the contents of the plaint, ensuring its accuracy. An accompanying affidavit further substantiates the authenticity of the statements made.

3) Facts of the Case

Material Facts:

Definition: Material facts form the foundation of a plaint and are essential for establishing the cause of action.
Trial Relevance: These are facts that will be crucial during the trial, requiring proof to substantiate the existence of a cause of action.

Example: In a case relying on a sale-deed, it’s vital to include details such as the specific person who executed the sale-deed, the date it was executed, and its proper registration.

Immaterial Facts:

Definition: Facts beyond the scope of materiality are deemed immaterial and their inclusion tends to make pleadings excessively lengthy and complex.

Issue Framing Challenge: Unnecessary inclusion of immaterial facts complicates the framing of issues during legal proceedings.

Example: In a promissory note case, stating that the plaintiff requested payment and the defendant refused is considered immaterial. This is because, in such cases, no formal demand is necessary upon maturity, as the amount is immediately payable.

Understanding the distinction between material and immaterial facts is vital for maintaining clarity and conciseness in legal pleadings. While material facts build the core of the cause of action, immaterial facts, if included, can unnecessarily prolong and complicate legal proceedings. The examples provided illustrate the practical application of these concepts in different legal scenarios.

4) Claiming Relief

Rule 7 of Order VII in the Code of Civil Procedure, 1908: A Pointwise Analysis
Rule 7 of Order VII:

Relief Specification: Mandates that any relief sought by the plaintiff, either straightforwardly or as an alternative, must be explicitly and precisely stated.

No Need for General Relief: There is no requirement to request general or other relief explicitly. The court retains the authority to grant appropriate relief based on the case’s facts, irrespective of whether it was explicitly sought.

Principle of General Relief:

Flexible Judicial Discretion: Recognizes the court’s discretionary power to provide relief beyond what is explicitly claimed by the plaintiff.

Justice as the Guiding Principle: Allows the court to ensure justice is served based on the facts presented, granting relief as it deems just and equitable.

Legal Precedent: Rajendra Tiwary vs. Basudeo Prasad and Another (AIR 2002 SC 136):

Application of Rule to Defendants: Affirms that the same rule articulated in Rule 7 applies to cases where a defendant asserts a claim for relief in their written statement.

Consistency in Relief Standards: Ensures uniformity in the application of relief-related rules, maintaining a balanced and fair approach for both plaintiffs and defendants.

Understanding Rule 7 underscores the importance of specificity in relief claims by the parties involved in a civil case. It simultaneously acknowledges the court’s discretionary power to provide appropriate relief, even if not explicitly requested, aligning with the overarching principle of ensuring justice in each unique case. The legal precedent cited reinforces the consistency of this rule’s application for both plaintiffs and defendants in the legal landscape.

Rule 8 of Order VII in the Code of Civil Procedure, 1908: A Pointwise Breakdown
Rule 8 of Order VII:

Distinct Claims or Causes of Action: Directs that if a plaintiff seeks relief for multiple and separate claims or causes of action based on distinct grounds, these should, to the extent possible, be stated separately and distinctly in the plaint.

Legal Precedent: Shehla Burney vs. Syed Ali Mossa Raza (2011) 6 SCC 529:

Specific Relief Requirement: Emphasizes that relief against a party can only be granted if it has been explicitly claimed in the suit or petition.

Mandate of Order VII Rules: Points to the specific mandate of Order VII Rules 5 and 7 in the Code of Civil Procedure, reinforcing the importance of adhering to the procedural rules governing relief claims.
Application of Rule 8:

Multiple Claims: Applies when a plaintiff is seeking relief for more than one distinct claim or cause of action, each grounded on separate and distinguishable reasons.

Clarity in Pleading: Aims to enhance clarity in legal pleadings by ensuring that each claim is presented separately, allowing for a focused and organized assessment of the case.

Understanding Rule 8 underscores the need for clarity and specificity when a plaintiff is pursuing relief for multiple distinct claims or causes of action. The legal precedent cited reinforces the procedural requirement that relief must be explicitly claimed in accordance with the specified rules of Order VII in the Code of Civil Procedure. This adherence to procedural mandates ensures a structured and fair legal process.

Pleading in CPC


1) Decoding the Significance of a Written Statement: A Point wise Explanation


Answer to Plaintiff’s Claim: A “written statement” serves as the defendant’s response to the claims made by the plaintiff in their plaint.

Required Filing: It is a mandatory filing by the defendant, providing an opportunity to present their statement or defense against the plaintiff’s assertions.

Content and Nature:

Admission or Denial: The written statement can either admit the plaintiff’s claim, deny specific allegations, or present a combination of admissions and denials.

Substantive Denials: When a denial is made, it must be substantive, addressing the substance of the allegation rather than evasively avoiding it.

Mandatory Inclusions:

Specific Dealing with Allegations: The written statement must specifically address each factual allegation presented in the plaintiff’s plaint.

Adherence to General Pleading Rules: It must conform to the general rules of pleading, ensuring clarity and coherence in the defendant’s response.

Legal Provisions:

Inclusion in Pleadings: Order VI Rule I of the Code of Civil Procedure, 1908, recognizes written statements as part of the broader category of pleadings.

Procedural Guidance: Order VIII of the Code of Civil Procedure, 1908, delineates the detailed procedures governing the preparation and submission of written statements.

Note on Applicability:

Mutatis Mutandis: Emphasizes that the rules pertaining to a defendant’s written statement also apply, with necessary modifications, to a written statement filed by the plaintiff. Understanding the written statement unfolds its pivotal role as a responsive document in legal proceedings. It demands specificity, substantive responses, and adherence to established pleading norms. The legal provisions within the Code of Civil Procedure underscore the procedural framework governing the preparation and submission of written statements, ensuring a structured and equitable legal process for both plaintiffs and defendants.

2) Crucial Aspects of a Written Statement: A Pointwise Overview

Mandatory Response to Plaintiff’s Claim:

Purpose: A written statement is obligatory, serving as the defendant’s formal response to the plaintiff’s claims outlined in the plaint, usually delivered with the summons.

Written Form Requirement:

Necessity: It is imperative for the defendant to articulate their defense in a written format.

Consequences of Failure to File:

Judicial Discretion: If the defendant neglects to submit a written statement, the court holds the authority, as per Order 8, Rule 10 of the Civil Procedure Code, 1908, to pronounce judgment against the defendant.

Extension Possibility: Legal precedent, as seen in Mehar Chand v. Suraj Bhan (AIR 1971 Punj 43), allows the court to extend the time for filing the written statement if not submitted at or before the first hearing.

Adherence to General Pleading Rules:

Conformity Requirement: The written statement must align with established general rules of pleading, ensuring clarity and coherence in presenting the defendant’s position.

Written Statement by the Plaintiff:

Nature: A subsequent pleading by the plaintiff, either responding to a defendant’s claim of set-off or, with court permission, addressing defendant’s defensive pleas.

Application of Rules: Emphasizes that the rules governing a defendant’s written statement also apply, with necessary modifications, to a written statement submitted by the plaintiff.

3) Points need to consider while drafting WS-

Strategic Denials and Onus of Proof:

Advisable Denials: If the plaintiff’s claim introduces a point not admitted in prior correspondence, it is prudent to deny it, shifting the burden of proof to the complainant.

Concise Presentation: Present defensive facts concisely and coherently, responding to each paragraph of the plaint.

Inclusion of Supporting Documents:

Annexures: Attach relevant documents like correspondence, invoices, challans, or extracts of books of account as annexures, bolstering the response to specific paragraphs.

Thorough Addressing of Each Paragraph:

Comprehensive Responses: Ensure that the reply addresses every paragraph of the plaint, leaving no assertion unattended.

Affidavit Support and Page Numbering:

Legal Backing: Support the written statement with an affidavit sworn by the opposite party, duly notarized for legal validity.

Systematic Filing: Number pages and file the reply along with annexures, accompanied by an authority letter if not previously submitted.

Importance of Completeness:

Avoiding Omissions: Any omission of crucial points from the reply could be detrimental, considering the limited provision for amendment under Order 6, Rule 17 CPC.
Legal Precedent: Supported by Mrs. Om Prabha Jain v. Abnash Chand Jain (AIR 1968 SC 1083), emphasizing that evidence cannot be introduced on points not pleaded.

Specificity in Allegations:

Fraud or Misrepresentation: When alleging fraud, coercion, or misrepresentation, provide specific particulars instead of general allegations.

Presumption and Burden of Proof:

Presumed Matters: The law presumes certain matters in favor of a party; there’s no need to plead them unless specifically denied.

Burden of Proof: Parties need not allege facts where the burden of proof lies on the other side unless specifically denied.

4) Preliminary Submissions


Preliminary submissions aim to unveil concealed or undisclosed facts related to the issue at hand, providing a truthful foundation.

Heading and Structure:

Legal pleadings should explicitly designate the section as “preliminary submissions/objections.”

Clarity and Applicability:

Ensure that the legal provisions and interpretations are lucid and directly pertinent to the issues in question.
Key Points under Preliminary Submissions and Objections:

a. Res Judicata Defense: Assert that the suit is barred by res judicata, implying a previous adjudication on the same matter.
b. Jurisdictional Defect: Identify any jurisdictional flaws that might exist in the legal proceedings.
c. Correction of Incorrect Facts: Challenge any inaccuracies embedded in the pleadings, rectifying misrepresentations.
d. Absence of Cause of Action: Argue that the plaintiff’s pleading fails to disclose a valid cause of action, a fundamental element for a lawsuit.

Thorough Analysis:

Conduct a meticulous examination of the facts, emphasizing the necessity of clear and substantiated preliminary objections.

Articulate Legal Provisions:

Clearly articulate the legal provisions that substantiate each objection, reinforcing the foundation of the preliminary submissions.

Conciseness and Precision:

Craft the submissions with a focus on conciseness and precision, ensuring the salient points are effectively communicated.

Logical Sequence:

Present the objections in a logical sequence, establishing a coherent and compelling narrative.

Consideration of Counterarguments:

Anticipate potential counterarguments and preemptively address them, reinforcing the strength of the preliminary objections.

Supporting Documentation:

If applicable, support the objections with relevant documentation or legal precedents that bolster the argument.

Jurisprudential Relevance:

Emphasize the jurisprudential relevance of each objection, aligning it with established legal principles.

Strategic Positioning:

Strategically position the preliminary submissions to set the tone for subsequent legal proceedings, framing the narrative advantageously.

Professional Language:

Maintain a professional and legally sound language throughout the submissions, enhancing credibility.

Proactive Approach:

Adopt a proactive stance, aiming to preclude potential legal challenges by addressing them in the preliminary submissions.

Overall Coherence:

Ensure overall coherence in the structure and content, presenting a comprehensive and compelling case within the realm of preliminary submissions.

6) Forms of Defense Against Pleadings


A defendant employs a traverse when outrightly and categorically denying all allegations presented in the plaintiff’s pleading.

Confession and Avoidance or Special Defense:

The defendant, while admitting certain allegations, endeavors to mitigate their impact by affirmatively presenting specific facts.

Objection in Point of Law:

These objections focus solely on legal points rather than delving into the merits. They can be Dilatory or Peremptory pleas/pleas in bar.

Dilatory Pleas:

This form of plea aims to postpone the trial on the merits. For instance, a plea to stay the hearing under Section 10, C.P.C. or a claim that the suit is improperly framed due to defects in the joinder of parties or cause of action.

Separate Proceedings for Dilatory Pleas:

Some dilatory pleas necessitate separate proceedings, while others can be incorporated in the written statement under the heading “Preliminary Objections.”

Multiple Forms of Defense:

A defendant has the flexibility to adopt one or more of these defense forms, either collectively or alternatively. Even if these defenses appear inconsistent, a defendant can present them based on the circumstances.

7) Basic Difference Between Plaint and Written Statement

 PlaintWritten Statement
1.Nature and Purpose
Initiates legal proceedings, presenting the plaintiff’s claims and demands.Responds to the claims in the plaint, outlining the defendant’s defense.
2.Initiator of the Document
Prepared and filed by the plaintiffDrafted and submitted by the defendant
3.Timing of Filing
Filed at the commencement of legal proceedingsSubmitted after receiving the plaint, responding to the allegations
4.Content Focus
Primarily consists of the plaintiff’s version of events, claims, and relief soughtFocuses on the defendant’s version, denying or admitting allegations and presenting defenses.
5.Purpose of Content
Seeks specific relief or remedy from the courtAims to counter the plaintiff’s claims and defend against legal consequences
6.Legal Consequences
Initiates legal action and sets the stage for court proceedings.Responds to legal action, defining the defendant’s stance
7.Format and Structure
Typically follows a narrative format presenting facts and claims.Responds paragraph-wise to each allegation in the plaint
8.Verification Requirement
Requires verification by the plaintiff.Must be verified by the defendant through an affidavit.
9Onus of Proof
Onus is on the plaintiff to prove the claimsDefendant denies claims, putting the onus back on the plaintiff
10.Scope of Amendments
Amendments allowed within reasonable limitsPermits amendments to address defenses or counterclaims
11.Admissions and Denials
States facts favoring the plaintiff’s caseAdmits or denies each paragraph of the plaint.
12.Submission to the Court
First document filed, initiating court proceedingsResponds to the court, following the receipt of the plaint
13.Preparation by Parties
Prepared by the plaintiff or their legal representative.Drafted by the defendant or their legal representative.
14.Primary Objective
Seeks a legal remedy or judgment in favor of the plaintiff.Aims to defend against the claims and avoid legal consequences.
15.Legal Precedents:
Sets the legal grounds and framework for the case.Responds to legal precedent and challenges presented in the plaint.

Pleading in CPC

8) Differences between Set off vs Counter Claim

 Set offCounter Claim
A legal defense that allows the defendant to deduct a debt from the plaintiff’s claimA separate claim initiated by the defendant against the plaintiff in the same lawsuit.
Invoked by the defendant as a defense.Filed by the defendant as an independent claim against the plaintiff.
Defensive in nature, reducing or nullifying the plaintiff’s claim.Assertive, bringing a new claim against the plaintiff.
4.Timing of Assertion
Raised during the trial as a defense.Filed with the defendant’s initial response or within a specified time frame.
5.Legal Consequences
Seeks specific relief or remedy from the courtAims to counter the plaintiff’s claims and defend against legal consequences
6.Legal Consequences
Adjusts the amount the plaintiff is entitled to recover.Seeks a remedy or damages against the plaintiff.
Dependent on the plaintiff’s claim, connected to the same transaction.Independent of the plaintiff’s claim, could involve a different set of facts.
Mitigates the defendant’s liability.Asserts the defendant’s rights and seeks relief.
9Scope of Relief
Limited to the amount of the defendant’s claim.May seek broader relief, including damages, injunctions, or specific performance.
10.Initiation Process
Raised as a defense in the defendant’s pleadings.Initiated through a separate pleading by the defendant.
11.Onus of Proof
Defendant must prove the existence and amount of the set-off.Defendant bears the burden of proving the counterclaim.
May be adjusted during the course of the trial.Generally allowed to be amended with court permission.
13.Legal Basis
Grounded in the same transaction or occurrence as the plaintiff’s claim.Can arise from a different cause of action.
Usually addressed within the main lawsuit.May result in separate proceedings if substantial.
Often compulsory if it arises from the same transaction.Generally permissive, not mandatory.
16.Potential Outcomes
Reduces the judgment amount in favor of the plaintiff.May result in a separate judgment against the plaintiff.
Pleading in CPC


1) Analysis of Kedar Lal v. Hari Lal (AIR 1952 Cal 176): Interpreting the Significance of Material Facts

Duty of Parties to State Facts:

Point: The judgment asserts the duty of parties to state only the facts on which they base their claims.
Explanation: Parties are expected to present relevant and essential facts, avoiding unnecessary information and ensuring a focused presentation of their case.

Central Question: Meaning of “Material Facts”:

This decision raises serious questions regarding the interpretation of the term “material fact.” 
Explanation: This term is of central importance in legal proceedings, and courts want to clarify its meaning in the context of the presentation of facts in pleadings. 

Significance of Material Facts:

Point: The judgment implies that parties should focus on stating facts that are material to their claims.
Explanation: Material facts are those essential to the core of the case, influencing the legal outcome. Courts emphasize the importance of relevance and substance when presenting facts.

Precision and Relevance in Pleadings:

Point: Precision and relevance are highlighted in pleading material facts.
Explanation: Pleadings should be concise, containing facts that directly impact the legal issues at hand. Irrelevant or extraneous details may be considered superfluous.

Ensuring Clarity in Legal Proceedings:

Point: The judgment underscores the need for clarity in legal proceedings.
Explanation: Stating only material facts enhances the clarity of the case, aiding the court in understanding the parties’ contentions without unnecessary information clutter.

Avoidance of Ambiguity:

Point: Emphasis on avoiding ambiguity in pleadings.
Explanation: Parties are encouraged to present their case in a manner that eliminates confusion, allowing for a more straightforward and efficient legal process.

Judicial Guidance on Material Facts:

Point: The judgment likely provides insights or guidelines on determining material facts.
Explanation: It can be inferred that the court, in its analysis, may have offered guidance on identifying which facts are considered material, potentially influencing future legal practices.

Relevance to Legal Practice:

Point: The importance of this judgment also extends to shaping legal practice. 
Explanation: By clarifying the obligations of the parties and the importance of material facts, this judgment helps set the standard for effective and focused arguments in legal proceedings.

2) Udhav Singh v. Madhav Rao Scindia (AIR 1976 SC 744): Understanding the Definition of “Material Fact”

Definition of “Material Fact”:

Point: The judgment provides a specific definition of the term “material fact.”
Explanation: “Material facts” are defined as all the primary facts that a party must prove during the trial to establish the existence of a cause of action or a defense.

Key Emphasis on Primary Facts:

Point: The judgment underscores the significance of primary facts.
Explanation: Material facts are not incidental or peripheral; they are the primary building blocks required to substantiate a party’s case. This highlights the core elements crucial for proving a cause of action or defense.

Essential Role in Establishing Cause of Action:

Point: Material facts play a pivotal role in establishing a cause of action.
Explanation: For a plaintiff, presenting material facts is essential to proving the grounds on which their legal claim is based, forming the foundation for the case.

Critical for Building a Defense:

Point: Material facts are equally critical for building a defense.
Explanation: Defendants must also present material facts to establish the grounds for their defense, demonstrating the key elements that refute the plaintiff’s claims.

Exclusive Focus on Trial Proof:

Point: The definition limits “material facts” to those required for trial proof.
Explanation: The judgment narrows the scope to the facts that must be proven during the trial, excluding extraneous details that may not directly contribute to the establishment of a cause of action or defense.

Distinction from Incidental Facts:

Point: Material facts are distinct from incidental facts.
Explanation: Incidental facts, while potentially relevant, do not fall under the definition of material facts. The focus remains on the primary elements indispensable for trial proceedings.

Clarity in Legal Terminology:

Point: The judgment contributes to clarity in legal terminology.
Explanation: By providing a precise definition, the court aids in setting a standard for legal practitioners, ensuring a common understanding of the term “material facts” in the context of litigation.

Guiding Principle for Pleadings:

Point: The definition serves as a guiding principle for pleadings.
Explanation: Legal practitioners can use this definition to discern and present the specific facts required to form a solid cause of action or defense, enhancing the efficiency and clarity of legal proceedings.

3) Virender Nath v. Satpal Singh (2007) 3 SCC 617: Understanding the Significance of “Material Facts”

Definition of “Material Facts”:

Point: The judgment provides a definition of the phrase “material facts.”
Explanation: “Material facts” are described as those upon which a party relies for their claim or defense. These are the facts crucial to establishing the plaintiff’s cause of action or the defendant’s defense.

Reliance for Claim or Defense:

Point: Material facts are those upon which a party bases their claim or defense.
Explanation: This emphasizes the essential nature of these facts as the basis of the case and emphasizes their importance throughout the argument. 

Dependence of Cause of Action or Defense:

Point: Material facts are the ones upon which the cause of action or defense depends.
Explanation: This judgment emphasizes the important role of material facts, establishes a direct relationship between material facts and the basis of legal arguments, and makes material facts essential to litigation.

Case-Specific Nature of Material Facts:

Point: The definition acknowledges the case-specific nature of material facts.
Explanation: There is no universal rule for what particulars constitute material facts; it depends on the unique circumstances of each case. This flexibility recognizes the diversity of legal claims.

No Universal Application:

Point: No universal rule can be laid down for what constitutes material facts.
Explanation: The judgment rejects a one-size-fits-all approach, recognizing the need for case-by-case assessment to determine the particulars that qualify as material facts.

Omission Renders Pleading Defective:

Point: Omission to state material facts renders the pleading defective.
Explanation: Emphasizing the importance of full disclosure, the judgment establishes that failing to include material facts in pleadings undermines the completeness and validity of the legal claim or defense.

Case Laws as Evidentiary Support:

Point: The judgment refers to case laws as evidentiary support.
Explanation: By citing case laws, the court provides a basis for its interpretation, grounding the definition of material facts in legal precedent and principles.

Implications for Pleadings:

Point: The judgment has implications for the drafting of pleadings.
Explanation: Legal practitioners must recognize the pivotal role of material facts in their pleadings, tailoring their presentations to the unique circumstances of each case and avoiding omissions that could render the pleading defective.

4) Life Insurance Corporation of India (LIC) vs. Sanjeev Builders Pvt. Ltd. And anr. (2022): Case Overview


A suit for specific performance of a contract was initiated in the Bombay High Court.
The plaintiff filed an application seeking an amendment to the plaint, initially claiming damages of 1,01,00,000/- and subsequently amending it to seek damages amounting to 4,00,01,00,000/-.
The High Court approved the application for amending the plaint.
The defendant appealed, contending that the amendment, granted after a delay of thirty-one years, should not have been permitted.Held by the Supreme Court:

Delay Not Grounds for Rejection:

Mere delay in filing the application for amendment is not sufficient grounds for rejection.
The delay can be compensated by imposing costs.

Guidelines for Amendment of Pleadings:

Amendments should be allowed if necessary for determining the real issues between the parties, without causing injustice.
Prayer for amendment is justified if: (i) Required for proper adjudication. (ii) Aims to avoid multiplicity of proceedings.

Exceptions for Disallowing Amendments:

Amendments are generally not approved if: (i) Raising a time-barred claim. (ii) Changing the nature of the suit. (iii) Exhibiting malafide intent. (iv) Jeopardizing valid defenses of the opposing party.

Promoting a Satisfactory Decision:

If the amendment enhances the court’s ability to render a more satisfactory decision, it must be allowed.

Rectifying Absence of Particulars:

Amendments are justifiably allowed when intending to rectify the absence of material particulars in the plaint.

Liberal Approach in Amendment Requests:

Courts should adopt a liberal approach when amendments are sought before the trial begins.
Delay alone should not be the basis for rejection.

Scope of Amendment:

Amendments must pertain only to the relief sought in the plaint.
Changes altering the nature of the suit or cause of action should be disallowed.

In Conclusion: The Supreme Court’s ruling emphasizes that delay in seeking amendments is not a sole reason for rejection. The court provided comprehensive guidelines, ensuring that amendments serve the interests of justice, rectify omissions, and contribute to a fair and efficient legal process. The liberal approach is encouraged, especially when sought before the trial’s commencement.

Pleading in CPC

Pleading in CPC

N) FAQ’s

1. What is a pleading in the context of the Civil Procedure Code?

Answer: A pleading serves as the documented expression of statements mutually created by both parties involved in a legal case. These written statements encompass arguments and pertinent information necessary for the opposing party to comprehend and formulate their case in preparation for the trial.

2. What is the purpose of filing a pleading?

Answer: Pleadings serve to define the issues in a case, providing a clear understanding of the claims and defenses of each party.

3. Who files the first pleading in a civil case?

Answer: The plaintiff initiates the process by filing the first pleading, known as the plaint.

4. What is a written statement?

Answer: A written statement is the defendant’s response to the plaintiff’s pleading, addressing each allegation.

5. Can a plaintiff amend the pleading after filing?

Answer: Yes, under Order 6 Rule 17, a plaintiff can seek the court’s permission to amend the pleading.

6. What happens if a defendant fails to file a written statement?

Answer: The court may pronounce judgment against the defendant, as per Order 8 Rule 10.

7. Is there a limitation on amending pleadings?

Answer: Generally, there is no limitation on amending pleadings, but it should be done diligently.

8. What is a preliminary submission in legal pleading?

Answer: Preliminary submissions focus on facts suppressed by the other side and are taken under the heading “preliminary submissions/objections.”

9. Can a defendant deny all allegations in a pleading?

Answer: Yes, a defendant can employ a traverse, denying all allegations categorically.

10. What is a dilatory plea?

Answer: A dilatory plea aims to delay the trial on the merits and may involve issues like defects in the framing of the suit.

11. Can a defendant adopt inconsistent defenses?

Answer: Yes, a defendant can present different defenses jointly or alternatively, even if they seem inconsistent.

12. Is there a specific format for drafting pleadings?

Answer: While there’s no rigid format, pleadings should adhere to the general rules of drafting and clarity.

13. What is the consequence of not filing a written statement within the specified time?

Answer: The court may pronounce judgment against the defendant, and the defendant loses the right to file a written statement.

14. Can a defendant file a counter-claim in the written statement?

Answer: Yes, a defendant can file a counter-claim seeking a remedy against the plaintiff.

15. Are there specific rules for verification of pleadings?

Answer: Yes, pleadings need to be verified, and the verification should be done by the party or its authorized representative.

16. Is there a limitation on the length of pleadings?

Answer: While there’s no strict limit, pleadings should be concise, avoiding unnecessary details.

17. Can a plaintiff file a subsequent pleading in response to the defendant’s claims?

Answer: Yes, a plaintiff can file a subsequent pleading, especially in reply to a defendant’s claim of set-off.

18. What is the role of affidavits in verifying pleadings?

Answer: Affidavits support the verification process, ensuring that the pleadings are authenticated and not mere formalities.

19. Is it necessary to attach supporting documents with the reply to the plaint?

Answer: Yes, relevant documents, correspondence, or evidence supporting the reply should be annexed.

20. Can a defendant seek a stay of proceedings under preliminary submissions?

Answer: Yes, a defendant can raise a dilatory plea, such as a plea to stay the proceedings under specific circumstances.

21. What should be done if an important point is omitted from the reply?

Answer: Omitted points can be challenging to rectify; hence, thoroughness in drafting the initial reply is crucial.

22. Are there specific rules for drafting defenses involving fraud or misrepresentation?

Answer: Yes, if alleging fraud, undue influence, or misrepresentation, parties must provide specific particulars in the pleading.

23. Can a party lead evidence on a point not pleaded?

Answer: Generally, no; the party must plead a matter for evidence to be admissible.

24. Is there a limit on the number of defenses a defendant can present?

Answer: No specific limit exists, allowing a defendant flexibility in presenting multiple defenses.

25. Can a party seek multiple reliefs in a single pleading?

Answer: Yes, a party can seek various reliefs as long as they are permissible under the law and the nature of the pleading

26. Can a plaintiff withdraw or amend the pleading after filing a written statement by the defendant?

Answer: Yes, a plaintiff can seek permission from the court to withdraw or amend the pleading even after the defendant has filed a written statement.

27. What happens if a defendant raises objections in point of law in the written statement?

Answer: Objections in point of law, whether dilatory or peremptory, aim to address legal issues. The court will decide on the merits of these objections

28. Is there a difference between a traverse and a denial in a written statement?

Answer: Yes, a traverse is a categorical denial, while a denial involves answering the denial in substance without evasion.

29. Can a party seek general relief without specifying the relief sought?

Answer: No, it is necessary for a party to specifically state the relief sought in the pleading.

30. What is the role of preliminary submissions in legal pleading?

Answer: Preliminary submissions focus on true and correct facts suppressed or not disclosed by the other side in the pleadings.

31. Are there specific rules for numbering pages and attaching annexures to the reply?

Answer: Yes, each page of the reply along with annexures should be duly numbered, ensuring clarity and organization.

32. Can a defendant adopt multiple forms of defense simultaneously?

Answer: Yes, a defendant can adopt different forms of defense, like traverse, special defense, and objections in point of law, based on the circumstances

33. Is there a time limit specified for filing a written statement after receiving the summons?

Answer: Yes, the defendant is generally required to file the written statement within 30 days from the date of service of summons.

34. What should a party do if it discovers important facts after filing the pleading?

Answer: The party should promptly seek the court’s permission to amend the pleading to include the newly discovered facts.

35. Can a plaintiff file a written statement in response to the defendant’s counter-claim?

Answer: No, a plaintiff responds to the defendant’s counter-claim by filing a written statement and cannot file a subsequent pleading.

36. Are there specific rules for drafting a written statement involving fraud allegations?

Answer: Yes, if fraud is alleged, specific particulars must be provided in the written statement.

37. Can a defendant challenge the jurisdiction of the court in the written statement?

Answer: Yes, a defendant can raise jurisdictional challenges in the written statement.

38. What happens if a defendant fails to raise specific defenses in the written statement?

Answer: Failure to raise specific defenses may limit the defendant’s ability to rely on those defenses later in the proceedings.

39. Is there a difference between material and immaterial facts in a pleading?

Answer: Yes, material facts are those forming the cause of action, while immaterial facts are unnecessary and may lead to voluminous pleadings.

40. Can a party seek multiple reliefs in the alternative in a single pleading?

Answer: Yes, a party can seek alternative reliefs in a single pleading, providing flexibility to the court in granting appropriate remedies.


Leave a comment